Judaism is one of the oldest monotheist religions in the world founded about 3500 years ago. It was established in the Middle East and its followers of Judaism are called ‘Jews’. It has distinct features of religion, philosophy, culture and a way of life for Jews. The followers of Judaism believe that they have been chosen by God himself to create examples of noble, holy and ethical conduct in the world.
There is strong influence of Judaism over the Abrahamic religions as Christianity, Islam and Baha’i.
Jews primarily live in Israel at about 42% of the total population, 42% in the United States and Canada and the majority of the remaining living in Europe and other parts of the world.
Judaism has numerous traditions, texts, philosophical principles and practices. Its holy scripture is ‘Torah’, ‘Midrash’ and ‘Talmud’. It has a number of divisions coming from Rabbinic Judaism which states ‘Torah’ to be the expression of written and oral commandments that God revealed to Moses on Mount Sinai. There are various divisions of Judaism which challenge the authority of Rabbinic Judaism. Jews vary from each other with reference to the Jewish laws and rabbinic tradition’s authority. Sections of Jews insist that Jewish law are divine and eternal and must be strictly followed. The traditional Jewish courts of law still exist today but matters are decided by scholars on the basis of sacred texts.