Hindu history is not restricted to history of just India, we ought to comprehend the historical backdrop of the world with more accentuation on history of Asia keeping in mind the end goal to comprehend history of Hinduism. In this article, we will attempt to reveal insight into the certainties about history of Hinduism.
History can be characterized as a deliberate record in a sequential request of essential men and occasions before, which is provided just by composed reports or things discovered which would give adequate proof about those occasions.
The pre-noteworthy period is the period when the specialty of composing was obscure to man and he had a primitive existence. With the assistance of cell based dating and things found at the excavation destinations, we can converse with certainty in regards to the pre-memorable period.
The period between the pre-noteworthy and notable period is known as proto-memorable period. The Indus Valley Civilization has a place with the proto-noteworthy period. The Vedic period in India is likewise viewed as proto-noteworthy in light of the fact that no composed records have yet been found. The Vedic learning was granted from ear to ear and was in this way put away in the memory and loved up in the heart of reflection. A great deal of research is required to have been done on History of Hinduism yet.
Hindu History before Indus Valley Civilization:
This period is otherwise called pre-history period where there was no understanding of religion by any stretch of the imagination. We will in any case allude them as Hindus in this article for comfort. This period goes back to certainly before 10000 B.C. The Paleolithic men were the most punctual tenants of India as indicated by accessible proof.
Neolithic age endured till around 4000 B.C. Neolithic individuals were more refined and dynamic than their points of reference, for example, Paleolithic and Mesolithic individuals. Neolithic men used to bury and also burn up dead bodies which take after to the incineration hone still taken after by Hindus. Chasing and fishing were there fundamental occupations. An extensive number of drawings demonstrating stags, crocodiles and different creatures and in addition hunters have been found from the different locales crosswise over India. They are accepted to have revered genealogical spirits. Stone love was a typical practice. They likewise used to venerate phallus which takes after Shiv Linga worship. Creature / animal sacrifice was a typical practice. They had comprehension of flame, stoneware, agribusiness and domestication of creatures. A few tribes of India like Gonds, Bhils, Satals, and so forth are accepted to have been from Neolithic individuals.
The Chalcolithic age kept going from 4000 B.C. to 2000 B.C. The Chalcolithic individuals are accepted to have utilized metal, for example, copper as weapon and extras. They knew how to make swords and different weapons of metal. They were preferable at cultivating over their previous points of reference.
Indus Valley Civilization:
The disclosure of Mohen-Jo-Daro and Harappa in the year 1922 gave shake strong proof to the world that Hindu culture is at any rate as old as that of Egypt Mesopotamia, and so forth. Prior to that, Indian history was not given particularly significance.
The time of Indus Valley Civilization could be between 2500-3500 B.C. or, then again even more established.
The Indus Valley Civilization was spread over around 840,000 square miles in zone covering Sind, Punjab, Kathiawar and some different zones. The towns were extremely arranged with present day civilities like staying houses, open structures, open showers, water system and waste frameworks, magnificent water supply.
The general population amid that time used to revere Devi, Shiva, Pashupati, Trimukha (three-headed god), and Yogisvara or Mahayogi. Other than that Yoni worship, creature venerate, tree love, fire love, water revere, naga worship, and sun respect were regular practices. Individuals used to bury the dead bodies.
History of Hinduism amid Vedic period:
The hypothesis of Aryans attacking India is dubious. A few history specialists trust that hypothesis was engendered by British keeping in mind the end goal to diminish the significance of Hindu culture and Vedas however the majority of the researchers trust that the first home of Aryans was Central Asia. A great deal of research should be done in this matter. Aryans extended their rule to Afghanistan, Uttar Pradesh, and the bowl of Ganges.
Vedic period was maybe the best time frame for Hindu Religion. Amid Vedic period, there was no inflexible station framework. The calling or the standing was not the criteria for getting coupled. Position in the Vedic period implied just class.
"A poet am I, my father is a physician, My mother is a grinder of corn"
The above lines are from Rigveda (IX : 112)
Joint family was a typical practice. No child relational unions were permitted. Monogamy was predominant, in spite of the fact that there are a few references to polygamy. Ladies were permitted to take an interest in social and religious capacities. There were no limitations for ladies. There was no Sati work on amid Vedic age. The position of a widow was good. The standard of ethical quality was high. The status of lady was high however sadly it decayed over the time.
There is mention of numerous Gods and Goddesses in Rig Veda which later formed into Vedic mythology. Vedic Hindus used to venerate gods like Sun, Indra, Vayu, Varun, Agni, Plants, waterways, and so forth. With the coming of present day science now a day, it is trusted that Vedas are science in encoded frames. The idea of attraction, root of universe, solar winds, and so on are talked about in a mystical form.
Rigveda is the most established sacred text in the world still being used.
History of Hinduism amid later Vedic period:
Hinduism turned into a tiny bit confounded amid this period. Standing framework turned out to be more inflexible with Brahmins getting more significance. The basic customs wound up to become confused. This brought about the authority of Brahmin clerics. The time of marriage was additionally brought down amid this period. Aryans built up 16 Mahajanpadas amid this period. Farming turned into the most vital occupation. The general public was unmistakably divided in four principle positions. Brahmins and Kshatriays acquire significance than the rest of the Varnas. Upanishads and other Vedic written works like Sriti and Smriti created amid this period. Ruler Shiva remained the most well-known god alongside Prajapati. Master Vishnu, Trimurthi, and other Vedic gods were additionally well known.
Ascent of Jainism and Buddhism:
Increment in the unbending nature of position framework and matchless quality of Brahmin clerics offered ascend to various uproars. At first, position was not chosen by birth but rather by the quality yet now Brahmins began the arrangement of rank by birth. This actually made pressures amongst Brahmins and individuals of other Varna. It is intriguing to take note of that both Lord Mahavir and Gautam Buddha were warriors. They really rebelled against the oppression of Brahmins. Buddhism spread Indian culture past India to nations like Sri Lanka, China, Japan, and so on. Buddhism turned out to be more prominent than Jainism.
Hindu History amid Pre-Mauryan period:
Prior to the attack of Alexander and the rule of Mourya administration, the majority of the India was caught by 16 Mahajanpadas. Those were as per the following:
Anga, Magadha, Vriji, Kosala, Malla, Vatsa, Kuru, Panchala, Matsya, Surasena, Kasi, Avanti, Asmaka, Chedi, Gandhara, and Kamboja. These 16 states were enormous and intense.
Bimbisara turned into the ruler of Magadha in 543 B.C. He acknowledged approach of development. It is said that he had 500 spouses. He utilized those relations to extend his kingdom. He vanquished the huge kingdom of Anga. It is trusted that he was a supporter of Jain however he bolstered Buddhism moreover. It is trusted that his child, Ajatsatru, executed him while Jains trust that he conferred suicide out of dread that Ajatshatru would slaughter him (A motion picture Amrapali was made on the life of Ajatsatru). In this era, Jainism and Buddhism were growing.
The first capital of Magadha was Rajgir yet Ajatshatru constructed another capital Pataliputra (Patna). Ajatshatru crushed the relationship of 36 republics called Vajji driven by Lichchavis. Ajatshatru disparaged Buddhism incredibly. After a couple of eras, Magadha went under the control of Mahapadma Nanda who was a child from a Shudra lady. This began the lines of Nandas who should be half-Shudras. His successor Dhanananda, one of the Nine Nandas, was an oppressive ruler. He was the leader of Magadha when Alexander attacked India at 327-326 B.C.
The Persian and Greek intrusion of India:
Amid 518-515 B.C. Northern Punjab was a piece of the Persian Empire. Persians received the princess of secularism and they didn't compel their way of life upon Hindus.
Alexander's Invasion of India:
Alexander, the Great, was the child of the lord of Macedon, Philip. He attacked India amid 327-326 B.C. In the wake of vanquishing the Persians, he progressed towards the East. He entered India through the Khyber Pass with a multitude of around 30,000 troopers. He got no resistance as well as was invited by Ambhi of Taxila. He at that point crushed diverse little and enormous kingdoms of India like Astes, Poras, Kathaioi, and some slope tribes. In any case, his trip was difficult. A firm resistance was offered by Indians. This brought about refusal of his armed force to walk further and consequently he came back to Greece and passed on in two years in the wake of coming to there. His intrusion made a lovely combination of Indian and Greek craftsmanship.
Hindu History During Mauryan Dynasty:
Mauryan Dynasty was established by Chandragupta Maurya. On account of latency of Dhana Nanda Arya Chanakya was angry with him. Along these lines, Dhana Nanda ousted his out of Magadha Empire. With the assistance of Chandragupta, Arya Chanakya fabricated the gatherings of uprisings and began revolting in the territories which Alexander had won. After the demise of Alexander, the hold of Greek wound up plainly debilitated and the energetic armed force of Chandragupta Maurya turned out to be all the more capable. He crushed the Greeks and after that vanquished states and kingdoms in North India. At that point, he assaulted Magadha and slaughtered Dhana Nanda who was a tyrannical ruler. Therefore, he set up Mauryan Dynasty in Magadha.
Chandragupta got a course of action of augmentation and brought particular North Indian kingdoms under his run the show. He penetrated into South India also. Chandragupta Maurya was winning by Bindusara who was a fit ruler. After his passing, Ashoka transformed into the ruler of Mauryan Dynasty. In the midst of the war of Kalinga, Ashoka expected to kill 100,000 officers of Kalinga and catch 150,000 warriors. This violence modified his assessment to deny any further wars. He came closer to Buddhism and recognized Buddhism.
Chandragupta was supporter of Jainism and his successor, Ashoka was the fan of Buddhism anyway they both were uncommonly standard and empowered everybody to benefit as much as possible from their religion. By far most of the overall public in India around then were Hindus just and they continued worshiping unmistakable perfect creatures like Vishnu, Shiva, Kubera, Skanda, Laxmi, etc.
History of Hinduism after Mauryas:
Brihatratha, the last leader of Mauryan tradition, was murdered by Pushyamitra Sunga in 185 B.C. The Sunga association ruled for the going with 112 years. By at that point, the last pioneer of Sunga custom, Devabhut, was executed by his minister Vasudev Kanva. The Kanva association accomplished an end following 45 years when Satavahanas squashed the last Kanva ruler however Satavahanas did not set up their administer in the north.
Buddhism and Jainism declined amidst this period as Sunga and Kanva association censured Brahminism. Amidst this period of move, outside tribes like Sakas, Parthians, and the Kushanas set up their vicinity in a few regions of North India. Amidst the post-Mauryan period the prestigious books like Manavdharma Sastra, Charaksamhita, Rasaratnakar, Arthashastra were formed. Out of six basic philosophical streams, Nyaya, Vaisheshika and Samkhya were made amidst this period.
After the fall of Mauryan space, different little kingdoms appeared. The satavahanas were the best among them. They built up their essentialness from Sanchi in the north, Konkan in the south and the ocean in the west and east. They recognized to have ruled for around 450 years (235 B.C. to 215 A.D)
In the midst of their lead, the position structure was inescapable however was not to a great degree unyielding. Between position social unions were typical. The women moreover thoroughly enjoyed high status in the overall population. The Satavahanas followed Vedic religion and performed Vedic sacrifices. The famous deities included Indra, Sun, Moon, Vishnu, Krishna, Shiva, Ganesha, and Pashupati. They also patronized Buddhism and Jainism and supported them wholeheartedly.
Guptas were the pioneers of Magadha. Following were the rulers of Gupta Dynasty:
1. Chandragupta I (319-335 A.D.)
2. Samudragupta (335-375 A.D.)
3. Chandragupta II (380-415 A.D.)
4. Kumargupta (415-455 A.D.)
5. Skandagupta (455-467 A.D.)
6. Vishnugupta (500-570 A.D.)
Gupta time is known as splendid time of Hinduism. Samudragupta is known as "Napoleon of India." Hinduism was reestablished in the midst of this period as it was put down by the masters themselves. Guptas created beautiful temples and popularized idol worship. Buddhism declined basically in the midst of this period. More confinements were put upon women, polygamy was cleaned, and the demonstration of Sati got the roots in the midst of this period.
Vakatakas, Pallavas, and Chalukyas:
These three organizations were from southern bit of India. They were partners of Gupta convention and they expected a basic part in bracing Hinduism in South India.
The kingdoms of Vakatakas, Pallavas, and Chalukyas similarly defamed Hinduism. Shaiva and Vaishnavas, the two groups of Hinduism, moreover ended up being extreme in the midst of their run the show. Buddhism continued losing its distinction. These three kingdoms amassed various asylums and figures. Some of these are eminent Ajanta hollows, Mahabalipuram, Aihole, and Badami.
Hinduism in the midst of the Chola Empire:
Chola kingdom was a greatly outdated area whose reference can be found in Mahabharat. It was in Southern bit of India. Rajrajeshwara revived the Chola Empire. He oversaw from 945-1014 A.D. He built up various tremendous Shiva Temples in the midst of his run the show.
Other rulers of Chola Empire were:
Rajendra I (1014-1044 A.D.)
Rajadhiraja I (1044-1052 A.D.)
Rajendra II (1052-1063 A.D.)
Virarajendra I (1063-1070 A.D.)
Kulo Hung (1070-1118 A.D.)
The last leader of Chola Empire was Rajendra III who was vanquished in 1258 A.D. by Pandya and this completed the Chola Empire.
The Chola heads demonized Hinduism, especially two associations viz Bhagvatism and Saivism. Various colossal asylums were worked in the midst of their run the show. Jainism and Buddhism also flourished. The women had a great time a not too bad monetary prosperity stood out from North India around at that point. Monogamy was general practice yet rich people practiced polygamy and had numerous companions.
Invasion by Muhammad Ghazni:
At the period of assault by Ghazni, Hindu Shehi organization was a basic kingdom around at that point. There were other little Rajput communicates that were fighting among themselves. Raja Jaipal was the pioneer of the area from Kashmir to Multan and from Sirhind to Langhani. In the begin of the eleventh century, Muhammad of Ghazni ambushed India. Jaipal was vanquished and he submitted suicide after that. His youngster, Anandpal made a gathered front out of Rajput manager however couldn't pound Ghazni. Ghazni made around 17 assaults after that and pillaged India. He invaded and crushed Somnath temple in Sourashtra, Gujarat.
Mahammad Ghori was a skilled ruler in Central Asia who ambushed India in the wake of vanquishing Ghaznavi. In 1191, he was smashed by Prithviraj Chauhan at the essential conflict of Tarai yet Prithviraj set Ghori free, which was his most noteworthy oversight. Mahammad Ghori ambushed again in 1192 and vanquished Prithviraj Chauhan. Ghori did not set Prithviraj free yet rather he executed him. By then, Ghori attacked Gujarat yet was squashed by Rana Bhimdev II of Anhilwada. He by then vanquished rich fields of Ganges and past. He kicked the container in 1206 and Qutb-ud-Din Aibak who was a Turkish slave got the position of expert of Delhi. Ghori pulverized a few Hindu havens and changed over many to Islam in the midst of this period.
Following lines had the respected position of Delhi after Ghori.
Slave Dynasty (1206-1290 A.D.)
Khilji Dynasty (1290-1316 A.D.)
Tughlaq Dynasty (1300-1414 A.D.)
Saiyyad Dynasty (1414-1451 A.D.)
Lodi Dynasty (1451-1526 A.D.)
The condition for all non-Muslims in India at this moment was forlorn. Spreading Islam was one of the rule purposes of the leaders of each one of these customs. Various incredible Hindu temples were befouled and obliterated in the midst of this day and age. All the non-Muslims expected were to pay Jezia and were not given high positions in the citizen upheld association. They were seen as Zimmi or workers/ second class citizens. No huge amazement Hinduism disintegrated in the midst of this time. The conditions of women escalated in the midst of this time. Rajput women expended themselves in "Jauhar" when their companions were defeated. Various Hindu women were raped and the women were particularly unprotected. Savage practices like kid murder and child nuptials won in the midst of this time.
Assault of Babar:
In 1526, Babar pounded Ibrahim Lodi in the essential encounter of Panipat because of his impelled battling frameworks and assistance from uprisings against Delhi Sultanate. After that he vanquished joined front of Rajput supervisor driven by Rana Sangram in the conflict of Kanwah in 1527. By then, he struck Afghan qualities of Doab and set up his kingdom from foot of Himalayas to Gwalior in the South. He passed on in 1530 after a short illness. He was winning by Humayun who transformed into the ruler of Delhi. Sher Khan smashed Humayun at Kanoj and transformed into the leader of Delhi Sultanate in 1540. After that he wandered over many places and got hitched to Hamida Banu Begum. In 1542, Akbar was born. He was given safe house by Shah of Iran.
Sher Khan set up Sur organization yet couldn't value it as he passed on in an accidental impact of a shell following five years yet he developed a colossal space over the whole of North India except for Kashmir, Gujarat, and Assam.
The domain of Vijayanagar is believed to be one of the best Hindu kingdoms some time recently. It is still connected with its splendid responsibility for Hinduism. The rulers built various delightful asylums of Hindu divinities and sacred individuals. Some of them were Vitthalswamy haven, Hazar Ramaswamy, Krishnaswamy, Bhuvaneshwari, Achutraya, et cetera. The craftsmanship and gems similarly flourished in the midst of this period. Krishna Devraya and Ramraya were famous leaders of Vijayanagar Empire. The space was at its top in the midst of the lead of Krishna Devraya. The entire South India was under his choose around at that point.
The Vijayangar Empire was directed by various conventions. Hampi was the capital city of domain. Harihara I and Bukka of Sangama custom is considered as the originator of Vijayangar Empire. Vijayangar Hindu Kingdom was built up by Harihara and Bukka in 1336.
I. Sangama Dynasty:
1. Harihara I (1336-1356)
2. Bukka I (1356-1377)
3. Harihara II (1377-1404)
4. Devraya I and his sons (1406-1424)
5. Devraya II (1424-1446)
6. Mallikarjuna and Virupaksha III (1446-1485)
II. Saluva Dynasty
1. Saluva Narasimha (1485-1491)
2. Narasa Nayaka and successors (1491-1503)
III. Taluva Dynasty
1. Vira Narasimha (1503-1509)
2. Krishna Deva Raya (1509-1529)
3. Achyuta Raya (1529-1542)
4. Sadasiva Raya and Ramaraya (1543-1570)
IV. Aravidu Dynasty:
1. Tirumala (1570-1578)
2. Sriranga II and Venkatapati (1579-1616)
The Mughal Dynasty:
After the passing of Sher Khan, Sur tradition destabilized. In this way, Humayun, with the assistance of Shah Tahmasp of Persia, caught Lahore however shockingly he kicked the bucket in 1556. From that point onward, Bahiram Khan helped Akbar to overcome the Sur line lead by a Hindu general, Himu, in 1556. This fight is known as second skirmish of Panipat. Along these lines, Akbar turned into the ruler of Delhi. Bahiram Khan merged the Mughal tradition by catching Agra, Gwaliar, and Jonpur. Akbar did not have full control over his kingdom due to Bahiram Khan. In this way, he had a contention with him. Bahiram khan revolted yet was vanquished. Akbar requesting that he go to Mecca yet he was killed in transit in 1561.
Akbar solidified the realm by getting numerous ranges under his control. His kingdom crossed through Himalayas to the Narmada and from Hindukush to the Brahmaputra. He embraced an approach of kinship with Rajputs. Raja Bhar Mal of Jaipur gave his little girl, Jodha, in marriage to the Mughal lord. He influenced other Rajput rulers and acquired them the administration of Akbar. Rana Pratap Singh from Mewar did not surrender and battled practically without any help for a long time against Mughals. In the skirmish of Haldighat in June 1576, Rana Pratap was vanquished however he didn't surrender. He proceeded with his battle until final gasp.
Akbar embraced arrangement of secularism and nullified Jezia on non-Muslims. His better half, Jodha, was a Hindu and he realized that approach of resistance would profit all. He established another religion called Din Ilahi. However, after the demise of Akbar, his successors stopped his arrangement. Shah Jahan reimposed Jezia on non-Hindus. His successor Aurganzeb was the stature of cold-bloodedness and religious obsession. He changed over a large number of Hindus to Islam either by drive or by tricking them. Really, this strategy was trailed by all the Muslim rulers in India with the exception of Akbar. Aurangzeb crushed Kashi Vishweshwar Temple and tossed the Shivlingam in a well adjacent. He executed the ruler of Marathas, Sambhaji Raje, on declining to change over to Islam. The same was finished with Guru Tegh Bahadur Singh. This period was the most noticeably bad known period in Hindu history. A large number of Hindus were murdered or potentially changed over to Islam. A huge number of Hindu ladies were assaulted and captured. In Maharashtra, individuals still allude to the rule of Mughals as the darkest period. It is an image of bad form for them. Aurangzeb would have certainly Islamized India if Maratha ruler Shivaji would not have been there.